Job offer in the area of influence of the project
In terms of workforce, the study area has an economically active population (PEA) of 165,302 people in which 159.673 are currently working, while 5.629 are unemployed. 9,500 of the people live less than 15 minutes from the project location. 26,000 are located between 15 and 30 min. 62,000 between 30 and 45 minutes and about 67,000 between 45 and 60 minutes.
By age groups, the EAP under 30 years of age; groups the 33% of the total, 40% are between 30 and 45 years old, and 27% are over 45 years old.
Table 2: Characteristics of the EAP in the area of influence of the project
|Man||Woman||Under 30 years old||Between 30 and 45 years old||Over 45 years old|
|Less than 15 minutes||9448||6631||2817||3023||3776||2649|
|Between 15 and 30 minutes||25 631||17 158||8473||7456||10 114||8061|
|Between 30 and 45 minutes||62 736||41 324||21 412||20 629||25 015||17 092|
|Between 45 and 60 minutes||67 487||44 156||23 331||22 334||27 052||18 101|
|Total:||165 302||109 269||56 033||53 442||65 957||45 903|
Table 3: Number of workers by educational level in the area of influence of the project according to defined travel times.
|Tiempo||Menos de 15 min||Entre 15 y 30 min||Entre 30 y 45 min||Entre 45 y 60 min||Total||Porcentaje|
|Primaria o menos||3662||8272||21 059||23 050||56 043||35.1%|
|Secundaria incompleta||2040||5909||13 026||13 202||34 177||21.4%|
|Secundaria Academica Completa||773||3551||8114||8404||20 842||13.1%|
|Secundaria Tecnica Completa||553||498||1241||935||3200||2.0%|
|Estudios Universitarios||2134||6462||17 235||17 580||45 411||28.4%|
|Total||9162||24 692||60 648||65 171||159 672||100.0%|
The distribution of the PEA by sex, shows that 109,260 are men (66%) and 56,033 women (44%).
The area of direct influence of the project has 159,673 workers, located according to the 4 travel times defined, as follows:
The distribution of the population employed in the area of influence of the project according to the economic activity they perform is shown in the following graph:
From the previous graph, derives that the economic activities that generate more employment in the area of influence of the project are: commerce (12,270), industry (11,121), the education-health and safety sector (9,831), the primary sector (6,008 ) and to a lesser extent construction (4,345), tourism (3,730), domestic employment (3,270) and transport and storage (3,103)
Population with potential to work in the area of influence of the project
The data shows that the study area has about 128 thousand people who are outside the labor market and have the age to work. Of this population, more than 30 thousand live less than 30 minutes from the area where the project locates.
About 3,500 of these students, live less than 15 minutes from where the project is located and 9,634 students live between 15 and 30 minutes.
Table 7: Number of students in the area of influence of the project according to defined travel times.
|15 min 0 less||3508||6,2%|
|Between 15 y 30 min||9634||16,9%|
|Between 36 y 45 min||20 842||36,7%|
|Between 45 y 60 min||22 864||40,2%|
Relevant data of this population
The population that does not study or work with ages between 15 and 24 represent about the 34,274 young people.
Of these, 18,213 are men (53.1%) and 16,061 are women (46.9%).
These 34,274 of young people present the following educational level:
a) 3,741 have university studies (10.9%).
b) 690 with full Technical Secondary (2%).
c) 5,700 with full academic Secondary (16.6%).
d) 11,451 with Incomplete Secondary (33.4%).
e) 12,692 with Primary or less (37%).
Population to be incorporated into the labor market in the next 30 years in the area of influence of the project.
The graph shows the estimates made for the area of study regarding to the growth the population will have Economically Active (PEA) until 2040.
Here are three scenarios:
· Assuming a participation growth rate male and female similar to the experienced in the last ten years (2008-2018).
· Scenario that contemplates growth in the rate of female participation 6% higher than scenario 1 in the first ten years, and then stabilizes in the order of 4%. The male participation rate grows to 2.5% in the first ten years, and the rule of 2% for the remaining period.
· The female participation rate varies from 6% to 8% in the first ten years, and then it is placed in the order of 5.5%. In the case of men, it goes from 2.5% to 3%, and stabilizes for the following period in the order of 2.5%.
The results show that the Workforce (working-age population) in the study area expects to have a growth in the order of 45 thousand people by 2030, and around 70 thousand people by 2040.
The data refers to new people who enter the labor market.
Inter-cantonal mobilization of the employed population in the study area with more than eight years of schooling
The employed population of the study area with more than eight years of schooling was classified, and it was analyzed whether they mobilized to work inside or outside the study area. The analysis was performed for the entire population employed, and for workers working in industrial and service activities. The results are shown in the following table:
|Workers who work within the study area||48 177|
|Workers who work outside the study area||50 144|
|Workers who work in the industrial activities in the study area||12 940|
|Workers who work in industrial activities outside the study area||8627|
|Workers who work in service activities within the study area||25 327|
|Workers working in service activities outside the study area||29 732|
There is a high mobility of workers who move to work between cantons of the study area, but many people also move from the townships of the study area to other cantons outside the study area.
If the total employment data is analyzed, we have that around 48,177 workers with more than eight years of schooling move within the cantons of the study area to work either in their same township or in other of the same area. While 50,144 employees in the study area move to other cantons outside the study area.
Around 12,940 employees who work in the industrial sector mobilize daily to work in cantons within the study area, while 8,627 do so to other townships outside the study area.
On the other hand, around 25 thousand workers in the service sector work within the study area, while just over 29 thousand have to move to other cantons outside the study area, mainly to the GAM.
Educational characteristics of the labor market in the study area
In the study area, there are 57 thousand people who are studying with the working age, this is a captive and potential workforce to enter the labor market in the short or medium term. Around 13,000 live less than 30 minutes from where the project will be settle, and just over 46,000 in less than an hour.
The study area has an Economically Active Population (PEA) of
72,581 people who have ten or more years of schooling. The fifth part of this population is located less than 30 minutes from the project location, 47% less than 45 minutes, and 35% less than 60 minutes.
The 72,581 people that make up the PEA with ten or more years of schooling in the study area, just over 41,000 are men, and about 31,500 are women. In other words, there is a predominance of the male population within the labor market associated with higher education; this value is close to 30%.
Continuing with the analysis of the PEA with ten or more years of schooling in the study area, it is essential to mention that around 2 thousand have less than 20 years, more than 44 thousand between 20 and 40 years, and just over 26 thousand are over 40 years. For all age groups, 65% of this population (47,309) live less than 45 minutes from the area where the project is located.
Bilingual population in the study area
Currently, the study area has about 16,410 people who speak a second language. English is the most spoken language, with around 15 thousand people, representing 91.5%. There are another thousand cases where the population probably additional to English or Spanish, also speaks French, Portuguese or German.
Table 9: Bilingual population in the study area
|Second language they speak|
|Under 18 years old||1931||11.8%|
|From 18 a 25 years||3337||20.3%|
|From 25 a 40 years||6729||41.0%|
|Over 40 years||4413||26.9%|
Of the total 15,575, 66% are employed, while 5% are unemployed. Likewise, 29% are not in the workforce either because of studies, retirement, in view of the fact that they are discouraged and do not want to look for jobs, or non-remunerative activities.
Salary characteristics of the labor market in the study area
The average gross income of employees in the study area was 426,301 colones ($ 750) per month during 2017. This salary is 35% lower compared to the Central region of the country, 6% compared to the Chorotega region, and 25% compared to the national average.
Tablle 14: Average gross income (monthly) of employees (colones) and differences concerning the study area. 2017
|Region||Income||Difference in income with respect to the study area|
|Central||572 854||146 553|
|Chorotega||451 941||25 640|
|Study zone||426 301||-|
|Huetar Caribe||404 419||21 882|
|Huetar Norte||403 438||22 863|
|Media Nacional||531 167||104 866|
The average income of employees by type of occupation is around 1.6 million colones per month ($ 2,750) for directors and managers, and 240 thousand colones ($ 420) in the case of workers with unskilled occupations.
Salaried workers who work in professional, medium-grade, and technical activities earn an average income ranging between 991 colones ($ 1,740) and 315 thousand colones ($ 555).